"Republic of China" redirects here. For the government that currently controls the mainland of China, please see China.
The Republic of China (commonly known as Taiwan) is an partially recognized island state in the continent of Asia.
- Capital city: Taipei
- Largest city: New Taipei
- Population: 23,373,517 (2013 estimate, ranked 52nd)
- Size: Disputed
- Currency: New Taiwan dollar
- Independence: October 10, 1991
- Current head of state: President Ma Ying-jeou
- Official languages: Standard (Mandarin) Chinese
The Republic of China is located in the Northern Hemisphere and Eastern Hemispheres. The area controlled by the Republic of China is mostly located on the island of Taiwan, along with the Penghu islands and many other small islands located off the coast of Fujian province on the mainland.
The People's Republic of China claims the territory of the island of Taiwan, though it does not currently control the island. The dispute began during the Chinese civil war of 1929-1950 when the People's Republic of China defeated the Republic of China as the de facto government of mainland China. The formerly ruling Republic of China government fled to the island of Taiwan, where they set up a government in exile.